Copyright | (c) The University of Glasgow 2001 |
---|---|
License | BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE) |
Maintainer | [email protected] |
Stability | stable |
Portability | portable |
Safe Haskell | Trustworthy |
Language | Haskell2010 |
The Maybe type, and associated operations.
Documentation
The Maybe
type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type
either contains a value of type Maybe
aa
(represented as
),
or it is empty (represented as Just
aNothing
). Using Maybe
is a good way to
deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic
measures such as error
.
The Maybe
type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error
monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing
. A richer
error monad can be built using the Either
type.
Instances
Monad Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
MonadFix Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
MonadFail Maybe Source # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
Foldable Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source # toList :: Maybe a -> [a] Source # null :: Maybe a -> Bool Source # length :: Maybe a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source # | |
Traversable Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
MonadPlus Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
Alternative Maybe Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
MonadZip Maybe Source # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Show1 Maybe Source # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Read1 Maybe Source # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes liftReadsPrec :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> Int -> ReadS (Maybe a) Source # liftReadList :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> ReadS [Maybe a] Source # liftReadPrec :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec (Maybe a) Source # liftReadListPrec :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec [Maybe a] Source # | |
Ord1 Maybe Source # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |
Eq1 Maybe Source # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) Source # | |
Data a => Data (Maybe a) Source # | Since: base-4.0.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Data gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Maybe a -> c (Maybe a) Source # gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Maybe a) Source # toConstr :: Maybe a -> Constr Source # dataTypeOf :: Maybe a -> DataType Source # dataCast1 :: Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Maybe a)) Source # dataCast2 :: Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Maybe a)) Source # gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source # gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Maybe a -> r Source # gmapQr :: (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Maybe a -> r Source # gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Maybe a -> [u] Source # gmapQi :: Int -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Maybe a -> u Source # gmapM :: Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source # gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source # gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source # | |
Ord a => Ord (Maybe a) Source # | |
Read a => Read (Maybe a) Source # | Since: base-2.1 |
Show a => Show (Maybe a) Source # | |
Generic (Maybe a) Source # | |
Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a) Source # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a) Source # | Lift a semigroup into Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner Since: base-2.1 |
Generic1 Maybe Source # | |
type Rep (Maybe a) Source # | |
type Rep1 Maybe Source # | |
maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b Source #
The maybe
function takes a default value, a function, and a Maybe
value. If the Maybe
value is Nothing
, the function returns the
default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside
the Just
and returns the result.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maybe False odd (Just 3)
True
>>>
maybe False odd Nothing
False
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we succeed,
return twice the integer; that is, apply (*2)
to it. If instead
we fail to parse an integer, return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "5")
10>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "")
0
Apply show
to a Maybe Int
. If we have Just n
, we want to show
the underlying Int
n
. But if we have Nothing
, we return the
empty string instead of (for example) "Nothing":
>>>
maybe "" show (Just 5)
"5">>>
maybe "" show Nothing
""
fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a Source #
The fromMaybe
function takes a default value and and Maybe
value. If the Maybe
is Nothing
, it returns the default values;
otherwise, it returns the value contained in the Maybe
.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
fromMaybe "" (Just "Hello, World!")
"Hello, World!"
>>>
fromMaybe "" Nothing
""
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we fail to
parse an integer, we want to return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "5")
5>>>
fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "")
0
listToMaybe :: [a] -> Maybe a Source #
The listToMaybe
function returns Nothing
on an empty list
or
where Just
aa
is the first element of the list.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
listToMaybe []
Nothing
>>>
listToMaybe [9]
Just 9
>>>
listToMaybe [1,2,3]
Just 1
Composing maybeToList
with listToMaybe
should be the identity
on singleton/empty lists:
>>>
maybeToList $ listToMaybe [5]
[5]>>>
maybeToList $ listToMaybe []
[]
But not on lists with more than one element:
>>>
maybeToList $ listToMaybe [1,2,3]
[1]
maybeToList :: Maybe a -> [a] Source #
The maybeToList
function returns an empty list when given
Nothing
or a singleton list when not given Nothing
.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maybeToList (Just 7)
[7]
>>>
maybeToList Nothing
[]
One can use maybeToList
to avoid pattern matching when combined
with a function that (safely) works on lists:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
sum $ maybeToList (readMaybe "3")
3>>>
sum $ maybeToList (readMaybe "")
0
catMaybes :: [Maybe a] -> [a] Source #
The catMaybes
function takes a list of Maybe
s and returns
a list of all the Just
values.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
catMaybes [Just 1, Nothing, Just 3]
[1,3]
When constructing a list of Maybe
values, catMaybes
can be used
to return all of the "success" results (if the list is the result
of a map
, then mapMaybe
would be more appropriate):
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
[readMaybe x :: Maybe Int | x <- ["1", "Foo", "3"] ]
[Just 1,Nothing,Just 3]>>>
catMaybes $ [readMaybe x :: Maybe Int | x <- ["1", "Foo", "3"] ]
[1,3]
mapMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b] Source #
The mapMaybe
function is a version of map
which can throw
out elements. In particular, the functional argument returns
something of type
. If this is Maybe
bNothing
, no element
is added on to the result list. If it is
, then Just
bb
is
included in the result list.
Examples
Using
is a shortcut for mapMaybe
f x
in most cases:catMaybes
$ map
f x
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
let readMaybeInt = readMaybe :: String -> Maybe Int
>>>
mapMaybe readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]>>>
catMaybes $ map readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]
If we map the Just
constructor, the entire list should be returned:
>>>
mapMaybe Just [1,2,3]
[1,2,3]